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Les Trois Mousquetaires

The Three Musketeers; The Three Guardsmen

roman/novel, pub:1844, action:1625-1628

    The story of four comrades-in-arms, who serve the Queen of France, and outwit her enemy Cardinal Richelieu and his clever agent, a female criminal. The agent is discovered to be the evil wife of one of the Musketeers. His private execution of her is the tragic climax of the story. Historic characters are Louis XIII., his queen, Richelieu, and the Duke of Buckingham.

    This is one of Dumas' best-known novels. It is the first in a trilogy which consists of three novels:
        Les Trois Mousquetaires,
        Vingt Ans Après (Twenty Years After), and
        Le Vicomte de Bragelonne ou Dix Ans Plus Tard (Ten Years Later).
    This third novel is often split up into three pieces when published in English:
        The Vicomte of Bragelonne,
        Louise de la Vallière, and
        The Man in the Iron Mask.

There is a sequel which was not written by Dumas Le fils de Porthos (The Son of Porthos).


Liens/Links
    "The Paris of the Three Musketeers", Scribner's Magazine, 1890
    "The Three Guardsmen"
    I Tre Moschettieri (italien/Italian) (texto)
    Les Trois Mousquetaires
    The Three Musketeers
    The Three Musketeers
    The Three Musketeers (text)
    Anime - Three Musketeers (coréen/Korean)
    Anime - Three Musketeers (English)
    Compagnie des Mousquetaires d'Armagnac
    D'Artagnan (peinture de statue)
    D'Artagnan, Un Gascon illustre et mal connu 1610 - 1673
    fiche bibliographique de Les Trois Mousquetaires
    Internet Movie Database's listing of Musketeer movies
    Milady de Winter
    Recherces historique sur Les Trois Mousquetaires
    Review of The Three Musketeers and its sequels
    Revista: A nova geração de mosqueteiros (portugais/Portuguese)
    Sinopsis de Los Tres Mosqueteros (espagnol/Spanish)
    Table of contents (chapter titles) of The Three Musketeers
    The Armagnac Musketeers
    The castle owned by Charles de Batz, the Gascon on whom the character of D'Artagnan was based
    The History of the Three Musketeers
    The Three Musketeers Club Japan
    The Three Musketeers Club Japan (japanois/Japanese)
    Vers en Les Trois Mousquetaires


Oeuvres/Related Works
    Williams, Henry Llewellyn, Jr.: D'Artagnan The King-Maker - New York, Street & Smith, 1901 (LOC# 01027101) (see D'Artagnan the King-Maker)
    Mahalin, Paul: D'Artagnan, grand roman historique remplissant la période de la vie du célèbre mousquetaire qui s'étend de "la Jeunesse des mousquetaires" à "Vingt ans après", les deux romans d'Alexandre Dumas - Paris, Librairie des publications modernes, 1890
    Courtilz de Sandras, Gatien de: Mémoires de M. d'Artagnan - Cologne, P. Marteau, 1700
    The Three Guardsmen - New York, P. F. Collier & Son, n.d., The Works of Alexandre Dumas in Thirty Volumes (vol. 12), blue cloth, gilt spine


Images (voyez tous/view all)
    "A Letter for your Master," said she
    "A Surgeon! or 'Sblood! my brave Athos will die"
    "Ah, you are a deep one!"
    "All for One, One for All"
    "And One for me! The Best for the Last!"
    "Athos slowly raised the pistol, until the muzzle almost touched Milady's forehead."
    "Before a Woman you would not dare to fly"
    "Brave young Man!" murmured the King
    "Buckingham took the casket and again fell on his knees."
    "But that is not M. D'Artagnan you show me"
    "Do you only wear such a fine golden Baldric to suspend a Sword of Straw from it?"
    "Go on, D'Artagnan, spur, spur!"
    "Go then, and may God Conduct you safely"
    "Good Lord! How quickly men forget," said the Procureuse
    "Good Lord! the fellow must be mad"
    "He came forward with one hand on the hilt of his sword and the other on his hip."
    "He drew the Handkerchief from under the Foot of the Musketeer"
    "Her attitude was rather free"
    "Here," said he to him, "are the Diamond Studs"
    "Here," said the King, "is a Proof of my Satisfaction"
    "Here," said the Queen, "here is a Ring of great Value"
    "Higher! much higher!" said Bonacieux
    "In the name of Heaven. milord!" cried Madame Bonacieux
    "It is he! the Man who took away my Wife"
    "It pleases me to say you annoy me"
    "Just Heavens! what I have read! cried the Duke
    "Keep up the Dance, then, since he will have it so"
    "Loose your hold, then, I beg of you"
    "Lord Winter caught him by the throat."
    "Madame, why did you not wear your Diamond Studs?"
    "Madame, you are about to receive a Visit from the Chancellor"
    "Musketeers! to the rescue"
    "No sooner had the rapiers clashed than a company of the Cardinal's guards came round the corner."
    "Now, Gentlemen, if it's Battle you want, you shall have it"
    "Now, through this loop-hole, I throw my Lasso"
    "Oh! Sir, Sir, you will kill yourself," cried Planchet
    "Sell this Ring? Never!"
    "Silence!" whispered D'Artagnan taking her Hand
    "The Devil take the Madman!" murmured M. de Tréville
    "The Man of Meung!"
    "There, Sir, there is that Letter"
    "To London?" cried Porthos
    "To me, Sir Guard, or I will slay you!"
    "To save the Queen with his Eminence's Money"
    "To the Health of the King and Cardinal"
    "Two Aces!"
    "We are about to have the Honor of charging you"
    "What is the meaning of this, Duke?"
    "What! you don't know me?"
    "What's this? Nothing but the Saddles!"
    "What?" said the King haughtily
    "Where does that Money come from?"
    "You are accused of High Treason"
    "You are all eating Horse"
    "You will appear at this Ball?"
    "Your Affair is not a bad one"
    "Your Gascon Head, will you have done?" said the King
    "Your Stockings and Shoes stand in equal need of brushing"
    A terrible Howling interrupted these Reflections
    Alexandre Dumas Fils
    Alexandre Dumas in his Library
    Alexandre Dumas's Pen
    Alexandre Dumas, from a photograph
    All admired his embroidered Baldric
    All at once the Duke uttered a terrible Cry
    And Each of these Men took a concealed Musket
    And Each put out his Hand into the Bag
    And he hanged her on a Tree
    And the two Friends began to dance
    And they continued at their best speed for two Hours
    Anne of Austria stretched forth her Hand closing her Eyes
    Arrival of D'Artagnan at Meung
    At the sight of his Friend, Porthos uttered a loud Cry of Joy
    Athos returned at a gallop to the auberge, which was opened to him without hesitation
    Athos would give Grimaud a good Thrashing
    Bernajoux described the Affair exactly as it had taken Place
    Buckingham, on being left alone, walked towards a Mirror
    D'Artagnan
    D'Artagnan began to be bored, and so did the Vicar
    D'Artagnan cast himself on his knees
    D'Artagnan caught at his Bridle and stopped him
    D'Artagnan saluted his Adversary with Hat in Hand
    D'Artagnan seized the Hand that was held out to him and kissed it
    D'Artagnan took every Smile for an Insult
    D'Artagnan was Conquerer without much Trouble
    D'Artagnan, Athos, Porthos, Aramis
    Fame
    Five Minutes after they were on Board
    H. M. Anne of Austria, Queen of France and Navarre
    H. M. Louis XIII., King of France and Navarre, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu
    He bore Jussac under the Monastery porch
    He climbed the Ladder very carefully
    He fell on his back
    He kissed the Hem of her Robe
    He sold him for three Crowns
    He then backed himself out
    He uttered a feeble Groan and fainted
    He was spitting in the Water to make Rings
    In an instant, he was among the Branches
    In the mean time Grimaud appeared in his Turn behind his Master
    La statue à Auch de d'Artagnan
    La statue à Auch de d'Artagnan
    La statue à Paris de d'Artagnan
    La statue à Paris de d'Artagnan
    Love and Arms
    M. Bonacieux was in the greatest possible Perplexity
    M. d'Artagnan the Elder girds his own Sword on his Son
    M. de Tréville delivered the Musketeer
    Map of Gascogne 1588
    Mars send Love to solicit Fortune
    Medallions of the Musketeers
    Mousqueton made a very good figure when attending on his Master
    One of those passed close to D'Artagnan's Face
    Peinture de la statue à Auch de d'Artagnan
    Peinture par Doré de la statue à Paris de d'Artagnan
    Planchet, much astonished, was busy grooming them
    Porthos began to make Passes at the Wall
    Porthos told him he was drunk, and the Stranger drew his Sword
    Porthos withdrew his dripping Hand from the Font
    She passed her Arm under D'Artagnan's
    The Ballet lasted an Hour
    The Cardinal
    The Cardinal took the Letter and read it
    The Horses went like the Wind
    The Image of Devastation
    The Lady on the Black Hood followed Porthos's Glances
    The Landlord entered with the wine and a ham
    The little feminine weapon flew into a thousand Pieces
    The National Novel
    The Provosts went out to wait upon the King
    The Three Musketeers, Classic Comics #1 cover
    The Three Musketeers, Classics Illustrated #1 cover
    The Three Musketeers, Classics Illustrated #1 painted cover
    The Three Others fenced against him with their agile Swords
    Then it became the turn of Athos, Porthos, and Aramis to mount Guard with D'Artagnan
    They carried him up a Flight of Stairs
    They devoured as much Provisions as would have lasted him two Months
    They took Aramis from his Horse at the Tavern Door
    They walked Arm-in-Arm, occupying the whole Width of the Street
    Timbre français
    Timbre monégasque de 1970
    Two of the Men appeared bearing the Woman in their Arms and carried her to the Carriage
    What the Devil could that Handkerchief mean?
    With a turn of his Finger he set the Clock right again


From A Bibliography of Alexandre Dumas père by Frank Wild Reed:
     One of Dumas' most famous romances. In this again Maquet was the collaborator. It would seem that Dumas, while writing his "Louis XIV. et Son Siècle," looking for local colour of the period, found the "Mémoires de d'Artagnan." (In the recently published [1929] "Alexandre Dumas et les Trois Mousquetaires" by H. d'Alméras, it is stated that Dumas borrowed the edition of those "Mémoires" dated 1704, and also the "Tableau de la Vie de Richelieu, de Colbert et de Mazarin" from the Marseilles library in 1843—and forgot to return them!) Turning over in his mind the earlier incidents there described, he found a romance beginning to develop. Being as usual much occupied, he turned his rough draft over to Maquet, who set to work at it, but with scant enthusiasm. We know that he desired to make it a romance of manners, whereas Dumas insisted upon one of adventure. Thus, but for Dumas' determination, there would have been no Buckingham and Anne of Austria, no diamond studs, no ride to Calais, and no hunt for the lost comrades strung along that famous route.
     It is a thorough-going historical romance of Louis XIII. and Richelieu (period 1625-1628).
     Originally advertised as "Athos, Porthos and Aramis," it first appeared, but under the present familiar title, in "Le Siècle," from March 14 to July 14, 1844, where it had an immense success. While he referred them to the "Mémoires de d'Artagnan," Dumas mystified his readers by stating that he drew the story from the unpublished "Mémoires de M. le Comte de la Fère." (To make the confusion worse there actually existed some "Mémoires de M. le Comte de la Fare," but these were of a, later period, dealing with the height of the reign of Louis XIV.)
     In the execution chapter (LXVI.) this sentence appeared originally, as an indication perhaps of a coming sequel : "Voyez, dit Athos, cette femme a un enfant, et cependant elle n'a pas dit un mot de son enfant!" ("Mark," said Athos, "this woman has a child, and yet she has not spoken one word about him.") All early editions contain it, but recent ones do not, and this applies to English translations, which may thus be regarded as of early or late date, Maquet's original draft did not contain it.
     Original edition : Paris, Baudry, 1844, 8 vols., 8vo. The eighth volume is filled out with three tales and one art study : "Histoire d'un Mort," "Histoire d'une Âme," "Un Message," and "Fra Bartholomeo." (Refer to page 173.) Several copies were printed on laid paper. The pagination is as follows, in each case with the table of contents additional: 449, 329, 386, 363, 310, 278, 297, 293.
     First illustrated edition: Paris, Fellens et Dufour, 1 vol., large 8vo., pp. 522, with 32 plates and a frontispiece portrait of Dumas, and head and tail pieces, 1846.
     Paris, Dufour, Mulat et Boulanger, 1849, 1 vol., large 8vo., with portrait and 32 engravings.
     Paris, Marescq et Cie., 1852, 2 vols., 4to., with illustrations by J. A. Beaucé, F. Philippoteaux, etc.
     Paris, Calmann-Lévy, 1894, 2 vols., demy 4to., with 250 woodcuts by Maurice Leloir, and a prefatory letter by Dumas fils.
     Paris, Louis Conard, 1923, 2 vols., large 18mo., with wood engravings by Fred-Money.
     It now fills two volumes in the standard Calmann-Levy edition, two in their illustrated series, and one in the "Musée Littéraire."
     It occupies the first half of Vol. 1. of Le Vasseur's "Alexandre Dumas Illustré."

         References :—
     Dumas: "Causerie" in "
Le D'Artagnan," No. for February 29th, 1868.
     Parigot: "Alexandre Dumas," especially pp. 137-41.
     Simon (Gustave): "Histoire d'une Collaboration: Dumas et Maquet."
     Parran: "Bibliographie d'Alex. Dumas," page 49.
     Quérard: "Supercheries Littéraires Dévoilées," Vol. I., especially Columns 1103-1105.
     D'Auriac (Eugène): "D'Artagnan;" Paris, 1846.
     Samaran: " D'Artagnan, Capitaine des Mousquetaires du Roi ; " Paris, Calmann-Levy, 1912.
     De Jourgain: "Troisvilles, D'Artagnan et les Trois Mousquetaires; " Paris, Champion, 1910.
     D'Alméras (Henri): "Alexandre Dumas et les Trois Mousquetaires;" Paris, Malfere; 1929.
     Courtilz (Gatien de): "Mémoires de d'Artagnan."
     Courtilz (Gatien de): "Mémoires du Comte de Rochefort."
     Reed (F. W.): "Dumas Revises 'The Three Musketeers'," Colophon, New York, 1938.
     La Rochefoucauld (Le Duc de): "Mémoires" Edition of 1817 (earlier ones were incomplete).
     Grant (James): "The Constable of France, etc." Article on "D'Artagnan."
     "Blackwood's Magazine," No. for January, 1845. [vol 57 page 59]
     "Blackwood's Magazine," No. for July, 1929.—Article : "The Genius and the Ghost," by R. S. Garnett.
     "Bookman," New York, Nos. for March, 1926, and January, 1927.
     "Chautauquan," No. XXXIII., pp. 71 ff.
     "Cornhill," Nos. for August, 1920, and November, 1927.
     "Literary Digest," No. for September 17th, 1921.
     "Harper's Magazine," No. for July, 1902.
     "Literature," No, for 24th March, 1900.—"The Biographer of D'Artagnan," by G. Brenan.
     "MacMillan's Magazine," Vol. LXXX., pp. 202-211.—"The Real D'Artagnan," by G. Brenan.
     Woodbridge: "Gatien de Courtilz " (particularly Chapters III. and V.).—John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1925.
     "XIX. Century," November, 1922.—"Dumas and Sue in English," by W. Roberts.

         Principal English Translations :—
     The English editions of this romance are more numerous than any other of its author's works.
     "The Three Musketeers" first appeared serially in the "London Journal," issued by Vickers, 1846. This may be only a long extract.
     During the same year this firm also issued it in penny weekly and fivepenny and sixpenny monthly parts, printed in very small but beautifully clear type, with rough wood-blocks by John Gilbert. It was also issued as one volume, entitled : "Buckingham and Richelieu," 1846. pp. iv., 132. This is not a full text, and it has an unauthorized chapter.
     "The Three Musketeers ; or, the Feats and Fortunes of a Gascon Adventurer," translated by W. Barrow, "Library of Foreign Romance," Vol. I., pp. 687, 1846. Bruce and Wyld.
     "The Historical Romance of Buckingham and Richelieu," a reprint of Vicker's edition, with a different title-page ; London, Sinnet, Agent for Dumas' Publications, 1853.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Routledge, 1853. Translated by W. Robson. Frequently reprinted.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Warne, 1883.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Dicks, 8vo., sewed, with illustrations by Philippoteaux, etc.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Walter Scott, a new translation by H. L. Williams, 1893. Has an interpolated chapter taken from the prologue to Dumas' play "La Jeunesse des Mousquetaires."
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Dent, 2 vols., 1894. Reprinted, same firm, 1906 and 1926.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Routledge, 1894-95. With 250 woodcuts by Maurice Leloir, edition limited to 775 copies, 2 vols., imp. 8vo., pp. xxx., 472, xii., 462, with prefatory letter by A. Dumas fils. This edition was reprinted with all the woodcuts. 8vo., 1 vol., 1922.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Methuen, with a long introduction by Andrew Lang, sewed, 1903. Another edition, with coloured plates by F. Adams, 1903, cloth. Reprinted, same firm, 18mo., 1923.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Collins, 12mo., 1907. Later it was reprinted in two vols. instead of in one. Barrow's text.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Sampson Low, "Masterpieces of Fiction," 2 vols., 1912.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Harrap, new translation, with coloured plates by R. Wheelwright, royal 8vo., pp. 553, 1920.
     "The Three Musketeers;" London, Nelson.
     A finely illustrated souvenir of the stage production at Her Majesty's Theatre, by Sidney Grundy; London, Nassau Press, 1899, A version of the film plot, differing much from Dumas, was published as a small illustrated pamphlet by the Allied Artists' Corporation, London, 1921.


From A Bibliography of Alexandre Dumas père by Frank Wild Reed:
     HYMNE DE MILADY (1). (CXX.)
     Three four-line stanzas, rhyming alternately. They are to be found in Chapter LIII.
     HYMNE DE MILADY (2). (CXXI.)
     One four-line stanza, rhyming a, b, b, a. It is to be found in Chapter LV.
     RONDEAU PAR ARAMIS. (Addenda CCCIX.)
     Five lines in Chapter XXVI rhyming a, b, b, a, c.


From A Bibliography of Alexandre Dumas père by Frank Wild Reed:
     It is not generally known that there are two - or three if it is preferred - texts of this famous romance; certainly the fact has been forgotten for three-quarters of a century, possibly for longer.
     This is the only instance known of a romance deliberately having been 'proof read' by Dumas after completion, which makes the fact the more notable. Without elaborating the investigation and the details which determined this, it may be said that apparently he first intended merely to correct trifling slips in the text of the romance which had placed him at the very head of the popular story-tellers of his day. But Dumas was a born improvisor, and ere half his task was done he began altering phrases, sentences, paragraphs, even pages. However, the result was not always an improvement, as for example when he rather coarsened the milady episode, making it more nearly approach the handling of his original, Gatien de Courtilz. Almost all texts today, save those long out of print, are of the revision. In all there are over two hundred definite modifications, many of no small import or interest.
     The original version, that published serially, had been perpetuated in the pirated Belgian issues, whose printers took their material straight from the newspaper issue, and it is to those, or the file of "Le Siècle," that we must turn for it.
     The revision is that common today.
     Then, when a publisher brought out the first illustrated edition, he selected his text as he fancied it from both those available. Always he chose what seemed to him preferable - I do not for one moment think this was the work of Dumas - and without sparing trouble. He would at times take the whole passage from one or other; but again he might build up a paragraph from sentences supplied by each, or even on occasion make a sentence from phrases of both the original and the revision.
     Of translations into English, all recent ones are of the revised text, with two exceptions: that of Collins Bros. "Pocket Classics" is a reprint of Barrow's first English rendering, which was taken from the original wording, while Routledge's "Aramis Edition" is a hybrid, owing something to translations emanating from both the original and the later texts.

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